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IT@Intel Brief Intel IT ITBestPractices Solid-StateDrivesandEmployeeProductivity July2011

Validating the Reliability of Intel® Solid-State Drives Benefits of Intel® Solid-State Drives •87percentreductioninannualized failureratedecreasesITtotalcost ofownership. •4xfasterI/Operformance increasesemployeeproductivity. ToenhanceemployeeproductivitywhilereducingITtotalcostofownership(TCO), in2009IntelITmadeastrategicdecisiontostandardizeonmobilebusinessPCs equippedwithIntel®Solid-StateDrives(Intel®SSDs).EarlyTCOcalculationsusingdata fromsolid-statedrive(SSD)manufacturersindicatedthatwecouldreduceTCOdueto 1 greaterreliabilitycomparedtoharddiskdrives(HDDs). Inayearlongstudyofmorethan 45,000SSDsdeployedinourmobilebusinessPCfleet,wevalidatedthatIntelSSDs providean87percentreductionintheannualizedfailureratecomparedtoHDDs—which supportsourearlyTCOanalysis.SeeFigure1. IntelSSDsoffersignificantperformanceandsupportbenefits,particularlywhen combinedwithIntel®Core™i5vPro™processorsandMicrosoftWindows7*.Users appreciateimprovedsystemperformance,greatermobility,andenhancedproductivity andefficiency.FromIT’sperspective,IntelSSDsoffergreaterreliability,betterbuild performance,andloweroverallTCOthanwecanachievewithHDDs. 5% 4% Lower is Better 3% 4.85% 2% 1% 0% 0.61% Hard Disk Drives Intel® Solid-State Drives Annualized Failure Rates Figure 1. Analysis of Intel® Solid-State Drive failure data shows an 87 percent reduction in the annualized failure rate compared to hard disk drives, directly reducing IT total cost of ownership. Intel internal measurements, 2008 and February 2011. IT@Intel Brief www.intel.com/it Benefits of Improved Drive Reliability Reducingdrivefailuressignificantly increasesemployeeproductivityand reducesITcosts.Forthisreason, IntelITproactivelymonitorsandthen repairsorreplacesdrivesthatexhibit signsofpotentialfailure. Foremployees,improveddrive reliabilityresultsin: • Fewerunpredictableand inconvenientoutages • Increasedproductivityandtask completion • Reducedpotentialfordataloss • Lesstimespentrecoveringdataand reconfiguringmobilebusinessPCs ForIT,improveddrivereliability leadsto: • Fewersupportcalls • LessServiceDesktimespenton driverepairandreplacement • Decreaseincostsfordriveswith expiredwarranties • Reducedcostsfordatarecovery onfaileddrives Weconsiderloweringtheannualized failureratetobetheprimaryfactor inreducingTCO.Tohelpusdetermine howmuchwecouldreduceTCOby replacingHDDswithIntel®Solid-State Drives(Intel®SSDs)inourmobile businessPCs,weworkedwiththe IntelSSDproductgrouptodevelop theClientITTCOtool,whichisnow availableonlineatwww.intel.com/ design/flash/nand/index.htm.IT organizationscanentertheirown dataintothetooltogetasenseof howmuchtheycouldreducetheir TCObytransitioningtoIntelSSDs. Background In2007,IntelITevaluatedreplacingHDDsin ourmobilebusinessPCfleetwithIntelSSDs. Asanewtechnology,IntelSSDsrequired higherupfrontcostscomparedtoHDDs. However,weanticipatedthatimproved employeeproductivityandmobilityplus reducedTCOcouldjustifythesecosts. WeassumedthatSSDswoulddeliverbetter reliabilitybecause,unlikeHDDs,theydon’t includefragilemovingparts.Tovalidatethis assumptionandtojustifythehigherupfront costs,wecalculatedTCOaspartofaproof ofconcept(PoC).Inourcalculations,better reliabilitywastheprimaryfactorinreducing TCO,whilefasterperformancewasa secondaryfactor. AtthetimewecalculatedTCO,wehadnot accumulatedenoughinternaldatatoanalyze reliability,andnolong-termstudiesofSSD reliabilitywereavailable.Asaresult,we reliedonthebestdataavailable—fromSSD manufacturers.Comparingmanufacturer estimateswithactual2007HDDfailuredata indicatedthatSSDscouldoffera90percent reductioninannualizedfailurerates. AspartofthePoC,wealsodeployed1,500 first-generationIntelSSDstooursalesforce in2008.In2009,wedeployedanadditional 7,000first-generationIntelSSDsto employeesthroughupgrades,OEMadoption, andPCrefreshes. OurTCOcalculations,alongwithstrong employeedemand,ledustocommitto deployingIntelSSDsin100percentof Intel’smobilebusinessPCs.Weprovided second-generationIntel®X25-MandX18-M MainstreamSATASolid-StateDrives(80GB and160GB)toemployeesthroughnew PCdeployments,OSrebuildsandupgrades, anddepartment-fundeddeployment projects.Byearly2011,wehaddeployed 45,384second-generationIntelSSDsinour environment,whichallowedustocalculate reliabilityusingactualfailuredata. Methodology WecalculatedSSDreliabilityusingtwo industry-standardmeasures,theannualized returnrate(ARR)andtheannualizedfailure rate(AFR).Toperformthesecalculations,we firstdeterminedthetotalnumberofweeks eachIntelSSDwasdeployedandthenadded thesetotalsforalldrivestodeterminethe totalnumberofdriveweeksthatIntelSSDs weredeployedinourenvironment. A“returned”driveisanydrivereplaceddue tosuspectedlogicalorphysicalfailure.We performedarigorousevaluationofeach returneddriveusingaproprietarytoolset thattheIntelSSDproductgroupprovided. Iftheanalysisdetectedafailure,welogged thecause.Ifadrivepassed,weloggeditasa return,butnotasafailure. WecalculatedtheARRusingasimpleformula: • ARR=TotalNumberofReturnedDrives/ TotalDriveWeeksx52WeeksperYear Similarly,wecalculatedtheAFR: • AFR=TotalNumberofFailedDrives/ TotalDriveWeeksx52WeeksperYear Results Table1comparesfailuredataforIntelSSDs withthatofHDDs.Wecalculated1,109,399 TotalDriveWeeksfrom45,384second- generationIntelSSDs.Duringtheyearlong study,employeesreturned227drives.Using theTotalDriveWeeksdenominator,we calculatedanARRof1.06percent. Ofthe227returneddrives,130had detectedfailures.UsingtheTotalDriveWeeks denominator,wecalculatedanAFRof0.61 percentandcomparedthistothe2007AFR forHDDsof4.85percent. Basedonanalysisofthefailuredatawe collectedonIntelSSDs,wedeterminedthat: • Thesecond-generationSSDswedeployed inourmobilebusinessPCsresultedinan 87percentreductionintheannualized failureratecomparedtotheHDDsweused inourmobilebusinessPCsin2007. • The0.61percentAFRforsecond- generationIntelSSDsreasonably alignswiththeassumptionofa 0.50percentAFRthatweusedin ouroriginalTCOanalysisandtherefore validatesourTCOcalculations. ThelowerAFRforIntelSSDsisthekey toreducedTCO,asimprovedreliability decreasesuserdowntimeaswellasIT costsfortroubleshootingandrebuilding laptops.EachdrivefailurecancostITfrom twoto12hoursofrepairtimeandcan involveseveralsupportcallstoansweruser questionsabouttheinitialfailureandthe reconfigurationprocess. Drivefailuresalsoincurvaryingdegreesof businesscostduetolostdata.Thecostof datalossdependsonhowrobusttheback-up systemisandonemployeecompliancewith regularback-uppolicies. Table 1. Annualized Failure Rate Comparison of Intel® Solid-State Drives and Hard Disk Drives Hard Disk Drives 4,160,000 Total Drive Weeks 80,000 Number of Drives 52 Average Weeks per Drive N/A Number of Returns 3,881 Number of Failures N/A Annualized Return Rate (ARR) 4.85% Annualized Failure Rate (AFR) Annualized Failure Rate Reduction Intel® Solid-State Drives 1,109,399 45,384 24.4 227 130 1.06 0.61% 87% www.intel.com/it IT@Intel Brief Collaborating with the Product Group to Improve the Design of Intel® Solid-State Drives Becausereliabilityplaysakeyrole inreducingtotalcostofownership andthereforetherateofenterprise adoptionofIntel®Solid-StateDrives (Intel®SSDs),IntelITcollaborated withtheIntelSSDproductgroup toanalyzeallreturneddrives.We ranasetoffailureanalysisscripts onreturneddrivestodetermineif theyfailedand,ifso,thecauses offailure.Theproductgroupthen usedtheresultstounderstandthe mostcommoncausesoffailuresin ourenvironment—includingpower- lossissues,NANDcelldefects,and firmware-relatedissues—tomake improvementsinthenextgeneration ofIntelSSDs. Conclusion IntelSSDsoffergreaterreliabilityandlower overallTCOthanweexperiencedwithHDDs. IntelSSDsalsoprovideIntel’shighlymobile workforcewithimprovedsystemperformance, longerbatterylife,andgreatermobility.These benefitsunderscorewhywearecommitted todeployingSSDsthroughoutourenterprise. IntelSSDsarenowpartofthestandard configurationforallthemobilebusinessPCs wepurchase.Ratherthanlimitingdeployment toourstandardtwo-tofour-yearPCrefresh cadence,wearetakingadvantageofevery opportunitytodeployIntelSSDs—including OSupgrades,PCrebuilds,andPCrefreshes—to realizethebenefitsofIntelSSDsmorerapidly. For More Information Visitwww.intel.com/itforadditionalpapers detailingourinvestigationsofSSDs. • “ImprovingtheMobileExperiencewith Solid-StateDrives” • “Enterprise-wideDeploymentofNotebook PCswithSolid-StateDrives” • “AcceleratingtheDeploymentofIntel Solid-stateDrives” For more straight talk on current topics from Intel’s IT leaders, visit www.intel.com/it. AUTHORS Doug DeVetter, EnterpriseArchitect,IntelIT Julie Rice, Solid-stateDriveDeployment Manager,IntelIT ACRONYMS AFR ARR HDD Intel® SSD PoC SSD TCO annualizedfailurerate annualizedreturnrate harddiskdrive Intel®Solid-StateDrive proofofconcept solid-statedrive totalcostofownership 1 “Enterprise-wide Deployment of Notebook PCs with Solid-State Drives.” Intel Corporation, August 2009. Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems and/or components and reflect the approximate performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems or components they are considering purchasing. For more information on performance tests and on the Read the full IT@Intel Brief Intel IT ITBestPractices Solid-StateDrivesandEmployeeProductivity July2011.

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